Niagara Falls is the second largest waterfalls in the world, and it is located on the continent of North America, on the common border between New York City in the United States of America and the city of Ontario in Canada. Niagara Falls branches into three main waterfalls: Horseshoe Falls between Goat Island and the region Table Rock, Bridal Veil Falls between Goat Island and Luna Island, and the American waterfalls between the Prospect and Luna Island, It should be noted that the Niagara River from which the waterfalls flow is 12,000 years old, and it flows at a speed of 56.3 km per hour , The rate of flow of its waterfalls is also described as the highest in the world, because its water flows from the top of the waterfall, which reaches a height of 50 meters.
Niagara Falls consists of three sub-falls that differ in their characteristics, as follows:
Horseshoe Falls: (English: Horseshoe Falls) is the largest waterfall among the three waterfalls; Its width is about 792 m, and its height reaches 48 m. It is also the strongest waterfall among all the waterfalls on the North American continent, In addition, the Horseshoe Waterfall receives the largest share of the water coming from the major lakes that feed the waterfalls. ; It takes up 90% of the total flowing water, and the reason for the name of the waterfall is because of the curved shape that its summit takes.
American Falls: (English: American Falls) reaches a height of 51 meters, and a width of about 323 meters.
Bridal Veil Falls: This waterfall, called Luna Falls, is also located on the American side, and this waterfall, with a height of about 55 meters, is the smallest of the three Niagara Falls, and its name is derived from the shape of the water when She falls through him, resembling a bride’s scarf.
The falls were first discovered by the Native Americans who inhabited the area, but they were not documented as an area with distinctive characteristics until it was seen by a Belgian priest named Father Louis Hennepin, which was mentioned later in his book entitled “A New Discovery”; Which inspired many people to discover the area, then the waterfalls became a tourist destination since the early nineteenth century AD, after the development of the railway system in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and researcher Bruce Treasure believes that the name Niagara is derived from the indigenous people of the region who are called the Nigerians (in English) The second assumption was made by George Stewart, who believes that Niagara is a name for a city known as Ongniaahra, meaning “a land area cut into two parts.”
The water source is in the waterfalls
Niagara Falls gushes about 170 thousand cubic meters of water per minute per day, at a rate of 113.3 thousand cubic meters, and the Niagara River is the source of this water, in addition to the large lakes near the falls such as Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; It was formed 18,000 years ago by the accumulation of water in the basins of the Great Lakes as a result of the melting of large quantities of ice in the southern part of the city of Ontario, in addition to some topographical changes in the area.
Geology and properties
Niagara Falls was formed at the time of the Wisconsin glacial inundation. As the glaciers passed over the region, a hole was created in the rocks, and new terrain was formed, the most important of which is the Niagara River, and the glaciers began to melt and accumulate in the Great Lakes, so the water began to flow from the lakes through the new terrain, forming the water of the Niagara River, but the river was not stable, as its waters were exposed. Annually, to freeze and melt, which caused the slow erosion of the river bed rocks, and thus the rocks began to fall against the direction of the river, forming Niagara Falls, the fall of the falls was up to 11.3 km between Queenston and Lewiston, but it continued to decline over time due to the continuous erosion of the edge rocks, and it was retreating towards 91.4 Poison south every year until the 1950s; The edge of the fall is in place due to the control of the flow of the river’s water.